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Negar Ashrafi
Department of Architecture

I am a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Architecture at the Pennsylvania State University. I got my bachelors in architecture and M.Arch back in my country, Iran. While I was pursuing my study toward Master’s degree, I started to work as an architect at Heeman Consulting Engineers Company. Working and studying at the same time was a great opportunity for me to use my academic knowledge into practice and obtain concrete knowledge in my field of expertise.

Master’s degree in Architecture in my country is a design-based program that strengthens the foundation and design skills and introduces few possible architectural research areas. As my intention has always been to become a useful and creative researcher and to make my research endeavors to be constructive and practical, I decided to pursue my study toward Master of Science in Architecture at Penn State, which is a research-based program. For my master’s thesis, I was working on “Opportunities and Life Cycle Impacts of High-Performance Windows in Reducing Energy Use in Residential Buildings.” The main objective of the study was to compare different types of high-performance windows using Life-Cycle Energy Analysis (LCEA), in order to find the most effective one in sustainable housing with regard to energy consumption. The analysis was conducted using a combination of energy simulation and embodied energy of the window’s components.

After M.Sc. and as I continued my study toward Ph.D., I got interested in the novel concept of using additive manufacturing (AM) technologies in the architecture and intended to make 3D-printing technology, specifically 3D-printing concrete, more feasible and frequent in the building industry. Therefore, I chose the topic of “Toolpath Design for Additive Manufacturing of Concrete” for my Ph.D. study.